, a parasite of Old World (Eastern Hemisphere) monkeys, has been documented as a cause of human infections and some deaths in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium species are transmitted by the bite of an infective female mosquito. Hydroxychloroquine for discoid lupus Chloroquin functional groups Narrative review on chloroquine resistance reversal among Plasmodium falciparum parasites by Frosch et al. 2 focused only on African countries and did not provide aggregate extent of chloroquine resistance reversal. Studies have investigated possibility of chemically altering chloroquine resistance which is mainly through Uses. Chloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites in countries where malaria is common. Malaria parasites can enter the body through these mosquito bites, and then. Drug-resistant P. falciparum. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Malaria is a major international public health problem; 91 countries reported an estimated 216 million infections and 445,000 deaths in 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report 2017. Occasionally, transmission occurs by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, needle sharing, nosocomially, or from mother to fetus. Chloroquine resistance countries On the Mechanism of Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium., Chloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions. Chloroquine expired side effectsPlaquenil pill shapePlaquenil lower platelets These interactive maps, based on the WHO global antimalarial drug efficacy database, provide a visual overview of therapeutic efficacy study results, according to malaria species, antimalarial treatment, year and geographic location. WHO Antimalarial drug efficacy maps. Drug Resistance in the Malaria-Endemic World - CDC. Persistence of chloroquine resistance alleles in malaria.. Current status of drug-resistant malaria 10 3. Causes of resistance 12 3.1 Definition of antimalarial drug resistance 12 3.2 Malaria treatment failure 12 3.3 Mechanisms of antimalarial resistance 12 3.3.1 Chloroquine resistance 12 3.3.2 Antifolate combination drugs 13 3.3.3 Atovaquone 13 3.4 Factors contributing to the spread of resistance 13 The ADF no longer uses chloroquine as an anti-malarial medication because the malaria parasites in countries that the ADF deploys to have become resistance to it, meaning it is no longer effective. Chloroquine is generally well tolerated but not suitable for people with epilepsy or existing eye disease. Despite the resistance cases that have been reported in chloroquine, some countries still use chloroquine to effectively treat malaria. For example in some countries in West Africa where chloroquine is still very effective in treating malaria as the as the malaria in these regions is uncomplicated 6.